Glossary

A1: Public Communications Network Numbers
Number(s) beginning
(unless otherwise stated)
Designation Applicable tariff principles and maximum prices
01 and 02 Geographic Numbers – see Appendix A for full detail of appropriate Geographic Area Codes available Not applicable
030 Non-Geographic Numbers: used by public sector bodies and not-for-profit bodies Calls charged at a geographic rate: calls charged at up to the same rate the customer would pay to call a UK Geographic Number, with calls to 03 numbers counting towards inclusive call minutes if the customer has remaining inclusive minutes to UK Geographic Numbers, and included in any discount structures that apply to UK Geographic Numbers
033 Non-Geographic Numbers
034 Non-Geographic Numbers: used for migrating numbers from matching 084 numbers
037 Non-Geographic Numbers: used for migrating numbers from matching 087 numbers
055 Corporate Numbers Not applicable
056 Location Independent Electronic Communications Service
070 Personal Numbers
076

(except 07624 – see Part C5)

Radiopaging Service
071 to 075 inclusive and 077 to 079 inclusive Mobile Services
080

(except 0800 plus 6 digits – see Part C5)

Non-Geographic Numbers Free to caller
082 Non-Geographic Numbers: Internet for schools Not applicable
0843, 0844 and 0845 Non-Geographic Numbers Retail charge to a Consumer of a call calculated by reference to the applicable Access Charge and Service Charge and in accordance with the tariff principles in paragraphs 17.24 – 17.30 of the General Conditions of Entitlement.

The applicable Service Charge must not exceed:

– 5.833 pence per minute, exclusive of VAT, where the Service Charge comprises or includes a pence perminute rate;

– 5.833 pence per call, exclusive of VAT, where the Service Charge is set exclusively at a pence per call rate.

0870, 0871, 0872 and 0873 Non-Geographic Numbers Retail charge to a Consumer of a call calculated by reference to the applicable Access Charge and Service Charge and in accordance with the tariff principles in paragraphs 17.24 – 17.30 of the General Conditions of Entitlement.

The applicable Service Charge must not exceed:

– 10.83 pence per minute, exclusive of VAT, where the Service Charge comprises or includes a pence perminute rate;

– 10.83 pence per call, exclusive of VAT, where theService Charge is set exclusively at a pence per call rate.

090 and 091

(except 0908 and 0909 –see Part C5)

Non-Geographic Numbers Retail charge to a Consumer of a call calculated by reference to the applicable Access Charge and Service Charge and in accordance with the tariff principles in paragraphs 17.24 – 17.30 of the General Conditions of Entitlement.

The applicable Service Charge must not exceed:

– 300 pence per minute, exclusive of VAT, where the Service Charge comprises or includes a pence perminute rate;
– 500 pence per call, exclusive of VAT, where the Service Charge is set exclusively at a pence per call rate.

098 Non-Geographic Numbers: used to provide Sexual Entertainment Services
116000 6-digit Non-Geographic Number: used to access ‘Hotline for missing children’ service (‘Type B AccessCode’) Free to caller
116006 6-digit Non-Geographic Number: used to access ‘Helpline for victims of crime’ service (‘Type BAccess Code’)
116111 6-digit Non-Geographic Number: used to access ‘Child helplines’ service (‘Type B Access Code’)
116117 6-digit Non-Geographic Number used to access ‘Non-emergency medical on-call service’ (‘Type BAccess Code’)
116123 6-digit Non-Geographic Number used to access ‘Emotional Support Helplines’ service (‘Type BAccess Code’)
118XXX 6-digit Non-Geographic Numbers used to access aDirectory Enquiry Facility (‘Type B Access Codes’) Retail charge to a Consumer of a call calculated by reference to the applicable Access Charge and Service Charge and in accordance with the tariff principles in paragraphs 17.24 – 17.30 of the General Conditions of Entitlement.
124 to 140, 143 to 146, 148 to 149, 160 to 169, and 181 to 189 inclusive Non-Geographic Numbers of up to 5-digits used to access an Indirect Access Provider (‘Type B Access Codes’) Not applicable
Geographic Area Code Geographic Area Conservation Area 100-Number Block Area
0113 Leeds
0114 Sheffield
0115 Nottingham
0116 Leicester
0117 Bristol
0118 Reading
01200 Clitheroe Y
01202 Bournemouth3 Y
01204 Bolton Y
01205 Boston Y
01206 Colchester Y
01207 Consett Y
01208 Bodmin Y
01209 Redruth Y
0121 Birmingham Y
01223 Cambridge Y
01224 Aberdeen Y
01225 Bath Y
01226 Barnsley Y
01227 Canterbury Y
01228 Carlisle Y
01229 Barrow-in-Furness (2,4,5,6,8)
Millom (3,7,9)
Y
01233 Ashford (Kent) Y
01234 Bedford Y
01235 Abingdon Y
01236 Coatbridge Y
01237 Bideford Y
01239 Cardigan Y
01241 Arbroath Y
01242 Cheltenham Y
01243 Chichester Y
01244 Chester Y
01245 Chelmsford Y
01246 Chesterfield Y
01248 Bangor (Gwynedd) Y
01249 Chippenham Y
01250 Blairgowrie Y
01252 Aldershot Y
01253 Blackpool Y
01254 Blackburn Y
01255 Clacton-on-Sea Y
01256 Basingstoke Y
01257 Coppull Y
01258 Blandford Y
01259 Alloa Y
01260 Congleton Y
01261 Banff Y
01262 Bridlington Y
01263 Cromer Y
01264 Andover Y
01267 Carmarthen Y
01268 Basildon Y
01269 Ammanford Y
01270 Crewe Y
01271 Barnstaple Y
01273 Brighton Y
01274 Bradford Y
01275 Clevedon Y
01276 Camberley Y
01277 Brentwood Y
01278 Bridgwater Y
01279 Bishops
Stortford
Y
01280 Buckingham Y
01282 Burnley Y
01283 Burton-on-Trent Y
01284 Bury St
Edmunds
Y
01285 Cirencester Y
01286 Caernarfon Y
01287 Guisborough Y
01288 Bude Y
01289 Berwick-upon-
Tweed
Y
01290 Cumnock Y
01291 Chepstow Y
01292 Ayr Y
01293 Crawley Y
01294 Ardrossan Y
01295 Banbury Y
01296 Aylesbury Y
01297 Axminster Y
01298 Buxton Y
01299 Bewdley Y
01300 Cerne Abbas Y
01301 Arrochar Y
01302 Doncaster Y
01303 Folkestone Y
01304 Dover Y
01305 Dorchester Y
01306 Dorking Y
01307 Forfar Y
01308 Bridport Y
01309 Forres Y
0131 Edinburgh
01320 Fort Augustus Y
01322 Dartford Y
01323 Eastbourne Y
01324 Falkirk Y
01325 Darlington Y
01326 Falmouth Y
01327 Daventry Y
01328 Fakenham Y
01329 Fareham Y
01330 Banchory Y
01332 Derby Y
01333 Peat Inn Y
01334 St Andrews Y
01335 Ashbourne Y
01337 Ladybank Y
01339 Aboyne (2,3,5,8)
Ballater (4,6,7,9)
Y
01340 Craigellachie Y
01341 Barmouth Y
01342 East Grinstead Y
01343 Elgin Y
01344 Bracknell Y
01346 Fraserburgh Y
01347 Easingwold Y
01348 Fishguard Y
01349 Dingwall Y
01350 Dunkeld Y
01352 Mold Y
01353 Ely Y
01354 Chatteris Y
01355 East Kilbride Y
01356 Brechin Y
01357 Strathaven Y
01358 Ellon Y
01359 Pakenham Y
01360 Killearn Y
01361 Duns Y
01362 Dereham Y
01363 Crediton Y
01364 Ashburton Y
01366 Downham
Market
Y
01367 Faringdon Y
01368 Dunbar Y
01369 Dunoon Y
01371 Great Dunmow Y
01372 Esher Y
01373 Frome Y Y
01375 Grays Thurrock Y
01376 Braintree Y
01377 Driffield Y
01379 Diss Y
01380 Devizes Y
01381 Fortrose Y
01382 Dundee Y
01383 Dunfermline Y
01384 Dudley Y
01386 Evesham Y
01387 Dumfries Y
013873 Langholm Y
01388 Bishop
Auckland (3,4,6,7,8,9)
Stanhope (2,5)
Y
01389 Dumbarton Y
01392 Exeter Y
01394 Felixstowe Y
01395 Budleigh
Salterton
Y
01397 Fort William Y
01398 Dulverton Y
01400 Honington Y
01403 Horsham Y
01404 Honiton Y
01405 Goole Y
01406 Holbeach Y
01407 Holyhead Y
01408 Golspie Y
01409 Holsworthy Y
0141 Glasgow
01420 Alton Y
01422 Halifax Y
01423 Boroughbridge (3,4,9)
Harrogate (2,5,6,7,8)
Y
01424 Hastings Y
01425 Ringwood Y
01427 Gainsborough Y
01428 Haslemere Y
01429 Hartlepool Y
01430 Market
Weighton (6,7,8,9)
North Cave (2,3,4,5)
Y
01431 Helmsdale Y
01432 Hereford Y
01433 Hathersage Y
01434 Bellingham (2,4,9)
Haltwhistle (3,5)
Hexham (6,7,8)
Y
01435 Heathfield Y
01436 Helensburgh Y
01437 Clynderwen (2,3,4,5)
Haverfordwest (6,7,8,9)
Y
01438 Stevenage Y
01439 Helmsley Y
01440 Haverhill Y
01442 Hemel
Hempstead
Y
01443 Pontypridd Y
01444 Haywards Heath Y
01445 Gairloch Y
01446 Barry Y
01449 Stowmarket Y
01450 Hawick Y
01451 Stow-on-the-
Wold
Y
01452 Gloucester Y
01453 Dursley Y
01454 Chipping
Sodbury
Y
01455 Hinckley Y
01456 Glenurquhart Y
01457 Glossop Y
01458 Glastonbury Y
01460 Chard Y
01461 Gretna Y
01462 Hitchin Y
01463 Inverness Y
01464 Insch Y
01465 Girvan Y
01466 Huntly Y
01467 Inverurie Y
01469 Killingholme Y
01470 Isle of Skye –
Edinbane
Y
01471 Isle of Skye –
Broadford
Y
01472 Grimsby Y
01473 Ipswich Y
01474 Gravesend Y
01475 Greenock Y
01476 Grantham Y
01477 Holmes Chapel Y
01478 Isle of Skye –
Portree
Y
01479 Grantown-on-
Spey
Y
01480 Huntingdon Y
01481 Guernsey
01482 Hull Y
01483 Guildford Y
01484 Huddersfield Y
01485 Hunstanton Y
01487 Warboys Y
01488 Hungerford Y
01489 Bishops
Waltham
Y
01490 Corwen Y
01491 Henley-on-
Thames
Y
01492 Colwyn Bay Y
01493 Great Yarmouth Y
01494 High Wycombe Y
01495 Pontypool Y
01496 Port Ellen Y
01497 Hay-on-Wye Y
01499 Inveraray Y
01501 Harthill Y
01502 Lowestoft Y
01503 Looe Y
01505 Johnstone Y
01506 Bathgate Y
01507 Alford (Lincs) (4,8,9)
Louth (3,6,7)
Spilsby (2,5)
Y
01508 Brooke Y
01509 Loughborough Y
0151 Liverpool Y
01520 Lochcarron Y
01522 Lincoln Y
01524 Lancaster Y
015242 Hornby Y Y
01525 Leighton
Buzzard
Y
01526 Martin Y
01527 Redditch Y
01528 Laggan Y
01529 Sleaford Y
01530 Coalville Y
01531 Ledbury Y
01534 Jersey
01535 Keighley Y
01536 Kettering Y
01538 Ipstones Y
01539 Kendal Y
015394 Hawkshead Y Y
015395 Grange-over-
Sands
Y Y
015396 Sedbergh Y Y
01540 Kingussie Y
01542 Keith Y
01543 Cannock Y
01544 Kington Y
01545 Llanarth Y
01546 Lochgilphead Y
01547 Knighton Y
01548 Kingsbridge Y
01549 Lairg Y
01550 Llandovery Y
01553 Kings Lynn Y
01554 Llanelli Y
01555 Lanark Y
01556 Castle Douglas Y
01557 Kirkcudbright Y
01558 Llandeilo Y
01559 Llandysul Y
01560 Moscow Y
01561 Laurencekirk Y
01562 Kidderminster Y
01563 Kilmarnock Y
01564 Lapworth Y
01565 Knutsford Y
01566 Launceston Y
01567 Killin Y
01568 Leominster Y
01569 Stonehaven Y
01570 Lampeter Y
01571 Lochinver Y
01572 Oakham Y
01573 Kelso Y
01575 Kirriemuir Y
01576 Lockerbie Y
01577 Kinross Y
01578 Lauder Y
01579 Liskeard Y
01580 Cranbrook Y
01581 New Luce Y
01582 Luton Y
01583 Carradale Y
01584 Ludlow Y
01586 Campbeltown Y
01588 Bishops Castle Y
01590 Lymington Y
01591 Llanwrtyd Wells Y
01592 Kirkcaldy Y
01593 Lybster Y
01594 Lydney Y
01595 Lerwick
Foula (75)
Fair Isle (76)
Y
01597 Llandrindod
Wells
Y
01598 Lynton Y
01599 Kyle Y
01600 Monmouth Y
01603 Norwich Y
01604 Northampton Y
01606 Northwich Y
01608 Chipping Norton Y
01609 Northallerton Y
0161 Manchester Y
01620 North Berwick Y
01621 Maldon Y
01622 Maidstone Y
01623 Mansfield Y
01624 Isle of Man Y
01625 Macclesfield Y
01626 Newton Abbot Y
01628 Maidenhead Y
01629 Matlock Y
01630 Market Drayton Y
01631 Oban Y
01633 Newport Y
01634 Medway Y
01635 Newbury Y
01636 Newark Y
01637 Newquay Y
01638 Newmarket Y
01639 Neath Y
01641 Strathy Y
01642 Middlesbrough Y
01643 Minehead Y
01644 New Galloway Y
01646 Milford Haven Y
01647 Moretonhampstead Y
01650 Cemmaes Road Y
01651 Oldmeldrum Y
01652 Brigg Y
01653 Malton Y
01654 Machynlleth Y
01655 Maybole Y
01656 Bridgend Y
01659 Sanquhar Y
01661 Prudhoe Y
01663 New Mills Y
01664 Melton Mowbray Y
01665 Alnwick Y
01666 Malmesbury Y
01667 Nairn Y
01668 Bamburgh Y
01669 Rothbury Y
01670 Morpeth Y
01671 Newton Stewart Y
01672 Marlborough Y
01673 Market Rasen Y
01674 Montrose Y
01675 Coleshill Y
01676 Meriden Y
01677 Bedale Y
01678 Bala Y
01680 Isle of Mull –
Craignure
Y
01681 Isle of Mull –
Fionnphort
Y
01683 Moffat Y
01684 Malvern Y
01685 Merthyr Tydfil Y
01686 Llanidloes (2,3,4,7)
Newtown (5,6,8,9)
Y
01687 Mallaig Y
01688 Isle of Mull –
Tobermory
Y
01689 Orpington Y
01690 Betws-y-Coed Y
01691 Oswestry Y
01692 North Walsham Y
01694 Church Stretton Y
01695 Skelmersdale Y
01697 Brampton Y
016973 Wigton Y Y
016974 Raughton Head Y Y
01698 Motherwell Y
01700 Rothesay Y
01702 Southend-on-Sea Y
01704 Southport Y
01706 Rochdale Y
01707 Welwyn Garden
City
Y
01708 Romford Y
01709 Rotherham Y
01720 Isles of Scilly Y
01721 Peebles Y
01722 Salisbury Y
01723 Scarborough Y
01724 Scunthorpe Y
01725 Rockbourne Y
01726 St Austell Y
01727 St Albans Y
01728 Saxmundham Y
01729 Settle Y
01730 Petersfield Y
01732 Sevenoaks Y
01733 Peterborough Y
01736 Penzance Y
01737 Redhill Y
01738 Perth Y
01740 Sedgefield Y
01743 Shrewsbury Y
01744 St Helens Y
01745 Rhyl Y
01746 Bridgnorth Y
01747 Shaftesbury Y
01748 Richmond Y
01749 Shepton Mallet Y
01750 Selkirk Y
01751 Pickering Y
01752 Plymouth Y
01753 Slough Y
01754 Skegness Y
01756 Skipton Y
01757 Selby Y
01758 Pwllheli Y
01759 Pocklington Y
01760 Swaffham Y
01761 Temple Cloud Y
01763 Royston Y
01764 Crieff Y
01765 Ripon Y
01766 Porthmadog Y
01767 Sandy Y
01768 Penrith Y
017683 Appleby Y Y
017684 Pooley Bridge Y Y
017687 Keswick Y Y
01769 South Molton Y
01770 Isle of Arran Y
01771 Maud Y
01772 Preston Y
01772 Preston Y
01773 Ripley Y
01775 Spalding Y
01776 Stranraer Y
01777 Retford Y
01778 Bourne Y
01779 Peterhead Y
01780 Stamford Y
01782 Stoke-on-Trent Y
01784 Staines Y
01785 Stafford Y
01786 Stirling Y
01787 Sudbury Y
01788 Rugby Y
01789 Stratford-upon-Avon Y
01790 Spilsby Y
01792 Swansea Y
01793 Swindon Y
01794 Romsey Y
01795 Sittingbourne Y
01796 Pitlochry Y
01797 Rye Y
01798 Pulborough Y
01799 Saffron Walden Y
01803 Torquay Y
01805 Torrington Y
01806 Shetland Y
01807 Ballindalloch Y
01808 Tomatin Y
01809 Tomdoun Y
01821 Kinrossie Y
01822 Tavistock Y
01823 Taunton Y
01824 Ruthin Y
01825 Uckfield Y
01827 Tamworth Y
01828 Coupar Angus Y
01829 Tarporley Y
01830 Kirkwhelpington Y
01832 Clopton Y
01833 Barnard Castle Y
01834 Narberth Y
01835 St Boswells Y
01837 Okehampton Y
01838 Dalmally Y
01840 Camelford Y
01841 Newquay Y
01842 Thetford Y
01843 Thanet Y
01844 Thame Y
01845 Thirsk Y
01847 Thurso (2,3,4,5,8)
Tongue (6,7,9)
Y
01848 Thornhill Y
01851 Great Bernera (4,6,9)
Stornoway (2,3,5,7,8)
Y
01852 Kilmelford Y
01854 Ullapool Y
01855 Ballachulish Y
01856 Orkney Y
01857 Sanday Y
01858 Market
Harborough
Y
01859 Harris Y
01859 Harris Y
01862 Tain Y
01863 Ardgay Y
01864 Abington Y
01865 Oxford Y
01866 Kilchrenan Y
01869 Bicester Y
01870 Isle of Benbecula Y
01871 Castlebay Y
01872 Truro Y
01873 Abergavenny Y
01874 Brecon Y
01875 Tranent Y
01876 Lochmaddy Y
01877 Callander Y
01878 Lochboisdale Y
01879 Scarinish Y
01880 Tarbert Y
01882 Kinloch
Rannoch
Y
01882 Kinloch
Rannoch
Y
01883 Caterham Y
01884 Tiverton Y
01885 Pencombe Y
01886 Bromyard Y
01887 Aberfeldy Y
01888 Turriff Y
01889 Rugeley Y
01890 Ayton (5,6,7,9)
Coldstream (2,3,4,8)
Y
01892 Tunbridge Wells Y
01895 Uxbridge Y
01896 Galashiels Y
01899 Biggar Y
01902 Wolverhampton Y
01903 Worthing Y
01904 York Y
01905 Worcester Y
01908 Milton Keynes Y
01909 Worksop Y
0191 Tyneside (2,4,6,8)
Durham (3,9)
Sunderland (5,7)
Y
01920 Ware Y
01922 Walsall Y
01923 Watford Y
01924 Wakefield Y
01925 Warrington Y
01926 Warwick Y
01928 Runcorn Y
01929 Wareham Y
01931 Shap Y
01932 Weybridge Y
01933 Wellingborough Y
01934 Weston-super-Mare Y
01935 Yeovil Y
01937 Wetherby Y
01938 Welshpool Y
01939 Wem Y
01942 Wigan Y
01943 Guiseley Y
01944 West Heslerton Y
01945 Wisbech Y
01946 Whitehaven Y
019467 Gosforth Y Y
01947 Whitby Y
01948 Whitchurch Y
01949 Whatton Y
01950 Sandwick Y
01951 Colonsay Y
01952 Telford Y
01953 Wymondham Y
01954 Madingley Y
01955 Wick Y
01957 Mid Yell Y
01959 Westerham Y
01962 Winchester Y
01963 Wincanton Y
01964 Hornsea (2,5,8,9)
Patrington (3,4,6,7)
Y
01967 Strontian Y
01968 Penicuik Y
01969 Leyburn Y
01970 Aberystwyth Y
01971 Scourie Y
01972 Glenborrodale Y
01974 Llanon Y
01975 Alford (Aberdeen) (2,4,5,9)
Strathdon (3,6,7,8)
Y
01977 Pontefract Y
01978 Wrexham Y
01980 Amesbury Y
01981 Wormbridge Y
01982 Builth Wells Y
01983 Isle of Wight Y
01984 Watchet Y
01985 Warminster Y
01986 Bungay Y
01987 Ebbsfleet Y
01988 Wigtown Y
01989 Ross-on-Wye Y
01992 Lea Valley Y
01993 Witney Y
01994 St Clears Y
01995 Garstang Y
01997 Strathpeffer Y
020 London
023 Southampton (8X)
Portsmouth (9X)
024 Coventry
028 Ballycastle (20) Y
Martinstown (21) Y
Ballymena (25) Y
Ballymoney (27) Y
Larne (28) Y
Kilrea (29) Y
Newry (30) Y
Armagh (37) Y
Portadown (38) Y
Banbridge (40) Y
Rostrevor (41) Y
Kircubbin (42) Y
Newcastle (Co. Down)(43) Y
Downpatrick (44) Y
Enniskillen (66) Y
Lisnaskea (67) Y
Kesh (68) Y
Coleraine (70) Y
Londonderry (71 and 72) Y
Limavady (77) Y
Magherafelt (79) Y
Carrickmore (80) Y
Newtownstewart (81) Y
Omagh (82) Y
Ballygawley (85) Y
Cookstown (86) Y
Dungannon (87) Y
Fivemiletown (89) Y
Belfast (90, 95 and 96) Y
Bangor (Co. Down)(91) Y
Lisburn (92) Y
Ballyclare (93) Y
Antrim (94) Y
Saintfield (97) Y
029 Cardiff

Clauses

17.24 The retail price for a call to an Unbundled Tariff Number which is charged to a Consumer is the sum of—

(a)the Access Charge Element; and

(b)the Service Charge Element, subject to any special offers, discounts or callbundling arrangements which the Communications Provider offers to thatConsumer.

17.25 The Access Charge must—

(a)not vary within a Consumer’s tariff package by reference to:

(i)the Unbundled Tariff Number that is called; or

(ii)the time or day of the call;

(b)be set at a pence per minute rate.

17.26 The Service Charge—

(a)must not vary according to the Communications Provider that retails ororiginates the call;

(b)must not vary by the time or day of the call;

(c)must be no greater than any applicable maximum price specified in theNational Telephone Numbering Plan;

(d)may be set at a pence per minute, a pence per call rate, or a rate whichcombines a pence per minute rate and a pence per call rate;

(e)must not require another Communications Provider to have systems able toaccommodate more Price Points than are required under paragraph 17.31,unless that Communications Provider agrees otherwise.

17.27 For the purpose of calculating an Access Charge Element, the Communications Provider:

(a)may round up the length of the call to 1 minute for a call lasting less than 1minute; and

(b)for a call lasting more than 1 minute but less than a whole number of minutes,must treat that call in accordance with the rounding principles it would applyto a geographic call of an equivalent length for the purpose of billing aConsumer.

17.28 For the purpose of calculating the Service Charge Element where the Service Charge comprises or includes a pence per minute rate, the Communications Provider must round up the length of the call to the next nearest whole second for a call lasting less than a whole number of seconds (so that, for example, a call lasting 3 minutes 14.5 seconds would be charged in respect of the Service Charge Element, at the applicable Service Charge multiplied by 3.25).

17.29 Paragraph 17.30 applies if both the following conditions in respect of a call to an Unbundled Tariff Number are satisfied —

(a)the Consumer has purchased a bundle of inclusive call minutes or inclusivecalls from the Communications Provider, which includes call minutes (or calls)to one or more Unbundled Tariff Numbers; and

(b)the call is to an Unbundled Tariff Number which counts towards remainingminutes (or calls) in the bundle of inclusive minutes (or calls) purchased bythe Consumer.

17.30 Where this paragraph applies, the Access Charge Element shall be deemed to be zero.